# Horizontal Analysis Percentage Change Calculation

Liquidity Ratios – Determine how quickly a company could pay its current, short-term, obligations, if they were due right away. Profitability Ratios – Determine how well a company produces returns on investment. From 2021 to 2020, we’ll take the comparison year (2021) and subtract the corresponding amount recorded in the base year (2020). Insert a column to the right of ‘2022’ and click on the cell corresponding to the first revenue line item. Google Sheets offers plenty of Data Analysis features that we can use to make sense of large data sets.

For instance, instead of creating a balance sheet or income statement for one specific period of time, you would also create a comparative income statement or balance sheet that covers quarterly or annual activity for your business. As a result, some companies maneuver the growth and profitability trends reported in their financial horizontal analysis report using a combination of methods to break down business segments. Regardless, accounting changes and one-off events can be used to correct such an anomaly and enhance horizontal analysis accuracy. Horizontal analysis is a type of analysis of an income statement that compares previous years to a base year.

## How to Do Horizontal Analysis?

Analysts cannot express a \$30,000 increase in notes receivable as a percentage if the increase is from zero last year to \$30,000 this year (remember, you cannot divide by zero). Nor can they express an increase from a loss last year of \$10,000 to income this year of \$20,000 in a realistic percentage term. For example, if Mistborn Trading set total assets as the base amount and wanted to see what percentage of total assets were made up of cash in the current year, the following calculation would occur. Compared with one of its biggest competitors, Microsoft, horizontal analysis shows that Apple’s Revenue growth and gross profit margin were lower than Microsoft’s in both years.

You can also compare specific expenses, such as marketing expenses or wages and salaries. By comparing data sets in this way, you can identify trends and patterns in your business performance. Vertical analysis shows a comparison of a line item within a statement to another line item within that same statement. For example, a business may compare cash to total assets in the current year. This allows a business to see what percentage of cash (the comparison line item) makes up total assets (the other line item) during the period.

## Horizontal Analysis

Horizontal analysis is a financial analysis technique used to evaluate a company’s performance over time. By comparing prior-period financial results with more current financial results, a company is better able to spot the direction of change in account balances and the magnitude in which that change has occurred. Investors can use horizontal analysis to determine the trends in a company’s financial position and performance over time to determine whether they want to invest in that company. However, investors should combine horizontal analysis with vertical analysis and other techniques to get a true picture of a company’s financial health and trajectory. For example, you can use vertical analysis to compare a company’s net income from last year to its net income from this year as a percentage of revenue. This information can help you identify whether or not your company is becoming more or less profitable over time.

• This method allows you to compare values from different financial statement periods in dollar terms.
• In this first example, I will be doing a horizontal analysis of Company A’s revenue based on its annual income statement.
• Horizontal analysis (also known as trend analysis) is a financial statement analysis technique that shows changes in the amounts of corresponding financial statement items over a period of time.
• Investors can use horizontal analysis to determine the trends in a company’s financial position and performance over time to determine whether they want to invest in that company.
• For example, you might compare a company’s revenue from last year to its revenue from this year or its net income from last year to its net income from this year.
• The comparative statement is then used to highlight any increases or decreases over that specific time frame.

The same dollar change and percentage change calculations would be used for the income statement line items as well as the balance sheet line items. The figure below shows the complete horizontal analysis of the income statement and balance sheet for Mistborn Trading. Horizontal analysis https://dodbuzz.com/running-law-firm-bookkeeping/ is used in financial statement analysis to compare historical data, such as ratios, or line items, over a number of accounting periods. In vertical analysis, the line of items on a balance sheet can be expressed as a proportion or percentage of total assets, liabilities or equity.

## Example of Horizontal analysis

Assume that ABC reported a net income of \$15 million in the base year, and total earnings of \$65 million were retained. The company reported a net income of \$25 million and retained total earnings of \$67 million in the current year. In the final section, we’ll perform horizontal analysis on our company’s historical balance sheet.

The foregoing analysis has revealed one reservation—operating expenses, particularly administra­tive expenses, have increased at a fairly high rate. Many selling expenses—such as sales salaries, commissions, and advertising—should rise somewhat proportionately with sales, but administrative expenses should not. An investigation of the reasons for the large increase in the latter expense might be indicated. This online calculator can be used to know the percentage change year over year (Y-o-Y) in net sales of your business.

Horizontal analysis can also be used to compare similar assets or businesses to determine the best method for maximising profit. For example, a company with two different warehouses could compare the costs of each warehouse and determine which one earns a greater profit per square foot. The percentage is calculated by first dividing the dollar change between the comparison year and the base year by the line item value in the base year and then multiply it with the value of 100. Therefore, we can say that in 2018 the Illustration Hotel increased its occupancy by 7 percentage points or that occupancy grew by 10.14%. The caveat is that while the percentage point calculation focuses on the difference in the percentage magnitudes (occupancy), the percent change shows the difference in the underlying measure (rooms sold).

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